• Home
  • Wiki Categories: sop

Close Quarter Combat (CQB)

CQB Introduction


An increased requirement for inner and inter team communication is required.
Confined spaces and close ranges making mistakes unforgiving,
You need to communicate:

  • When you are ready,
  • Where you are covering or moving to,
  • What you shoot at or see and,
  • Result of any contacts.

Attention and Participation

CBQ requires the full attention and participation of all members in the team.
A single break in the coverage or communication of one or part of the team can have quick and deadly consequences. Everyone needs to be pro-active team members, waiting for FTL or SQL direction on the details will not be possible. If you identify an area/door/hallway for example that is not covered, cover it and call it covered.

Types of Assaults


A controlled steady clearing, generally at a slower safer pace where time is not an issue. Also can be chosen for stealth.


A more offensive approach, generally faster where time is an issue, ie hostages. No stealth, more shock and awe.
Still a controlled assault adhering to your initial or detailed plan.


Quick Assault Plan

Outline a basic plan that can be actioned immediately if required.
Outlines Approach, Entry Points, Exfil Points
Communicate the plan to the entire team, if casualties are taken the plan can be continued on.

Detailed Assault Plan

Update the Quick Plan with specifics based off intel and team observations. I.e location of known enemy, your own and enemy’s capability, changes to the scene.


The approach is the act of approaching the target location, this can be as little as entering a gate to house or moving down a street to the target compound or as extreme as crossing a field or forest to reach the target pooint.

Types and Tactics


Ensure windows/doorways/access points are clear of hostiles and continue to provide security on all points while approaching
Where possible approach towards corners of buildings/compounds, allows greater coverage and a position to move to, to limit exposure if fire is taken from the building/compound.
Maintain security all round, don’t neglect nearby streets/buildings/sheds. Avoid full team tunnel vision of the target, delegate teams to each if required.


Try and position the vehicle’s on dismount to provide cover from the target and a fall back position if stackup or entry fail. Ie side on to target.


Task a team to watch target direction and another to provide the all round defence rather than a straight all round defence on dismount.
If they insertion is ‘on’ target exclude the all round defence and move directly to approach – foot.


After the approach you move into a ‘stack’, preferably you don’t remain in the stack setup for too long as it can be a vulnerable position therefore good coordination between separate teams is required to minimise this. Communicate and acknowledge your commencement of approach. Ie SQL Go, Go, Go! – Blue Moving, Red Moving.

When you reach the ‘stack’ ensure to report your SET, meaning you are set for entry. Do not report set that you have arrived at the door/entrance, report set when you are ready to enter as the call to enter may come immediately and you need to be ready.


The Stack is the point you have completed your approach and is designed to defeat bottlenecks in the enemy’s defence and where stealth has been maintain through the approach achieve maximum surprise, shock and awe to an assault.


Single Side – all members on one side
Dual Side – split members either side


Maintain your security, front member (1) should never take his eyes of the door/entry. If he needs to reload call it so someone can cover. The door/entry is the greatest risk.
Ensure windows, other entrances and exits, are covered. (2 and 3)
Ensure the approach/rear remains secure. (4)
Members 1 and 2 should be ready to enter at a moment’s notice, 3 and 4 should also be close by to support the entry.

Ideally the stack is a fireteam, minimum is buddy pair.


Entry is the act of defeating the bottleneck and progressing to a secure position beyond it. The clearing then comes a series of Entry – Security repeating as you move through the area/house/compound. The more confined the target the more defined this will be.


The types of entry differ on the type of assault.

Deliberate / Stealth

This process involves ‘pieing’ the door before entry, if in stealth no flashbangs are required.


Member 1 opens door, member 2 throws flashbang, entry is made immediately by 1 and 2.

On Entry – House/Building

The objective is to establish a secure position inside immediately after entry. This is achieved by identifying threat areas upon entry and setting up coverage for them. Where the team is smaller (2 members) this is achieved as best as possible.

1 and 2 clear immediate threats and setup covering primary threat areas, 3 supports primary threat area coverage and 4 calls the next action and is supported by 3. Ie 4 making entry left door.
Buddy Teams then switch between security for the other team and entry/clearing while other team provides security.

Don’t stop in immediate doorway, push in enough to allow full team access.
If opening a door be mindful of exposure to friendlies from changed conditions.
If you are covering a hallway/doorway/area call it and if you call it don’t leave it without notice or assurance it is covered by someone else.

On Entry – Compound/Property

Remain against walls and proceed around perimeter of compound allowing maximum firepower internally.
Maintain movement and don’t stop in entrance to allow full team entry.
Communication is key. If you shoot follow it with a comment. Ie Clear, Target Down.
Patience, houses can be crowded, arma is buggy. Allow your team mates room to move where possible, don’t compete for the front, alternate it as you move and secure.
Be are of arcs of fire, particularly in dangerous areas such as corridors with multiple rooms leading off, stairwells, open areas.

Use flashbangs on any difficult area to give you more time to establish security through it. If you use a flash call it before you throw it. Ie. Flash out doorway left.
PID, watch for hostages, watch for other teams when dual entry.



Always be mindful of non target location security, support or ambushes can come from anywhere, early notice of such events is key to adapting to them.


If you’re not clearing a room, lock down a ‘kill zone’ like a hallway/staircase/doorway/firelane


Stay in a security position until the other members have cleared their room and are out ready to provide security for you to clear your room.
Do not neglect your coverage zone.
Communicate any shots fired to ensure the result is positive.

Fleeing Enemy

Report fleeing enemy, do not pursue, maintain the security of the team.


Exfil is the exiting of the target area, the assault has not finished until exfil is complete and team and hostages are extracted.
The situation around the target could have changed while you were busy on target.
Re-enforcements or a stray patrol missed on approach could now be reacting to your presence.
Halting on target should only ever be done when Sensitive Site Exploitation (SSE) is required. (intel gathering)

Continue Reading

Working with Infantry


There are some general rules when working with ‘squishies’ (infantry). Most important of which is that the commander needs to keep control of the driver so as to minimise any erratic movements.

Some general rules are:

  • Never reverse the vehicle.
  • Attempt to stay to the rear, or to the side of the infantry formations if possible.
  • Your main armament, especially on tanks, can injure and kill infantry if they are any further forward than the centre of the turret, and within 30m forward of the gun, due to the rapid change in air pressure created by the gun when firing.
  • When administratively moving around infantry, the loader or commander MUST dismount and guide the driver by hand and radio.

The infantry must also keep a few rules in mind around armoured vehicles:

  • Stay behind the centre-line of the vehicle to avoid being run over.
  • Maintain communications with the commander via radio.
  • When attempting to mount or dismount from a LAV, make sure the commander is aware of your intentions.


Continue Reading

Commanding the vehicle


The commander will order the members of the crew using the basic sequence of ALERT – ORDER.

The Crew must be aware of two important postures for armoured vehicles, the Turret-down and Hull-down positions.

The Hull-down position is where you position the vehicle so that only the turret can be seen from the location that you are observing or engaging.

The Turret-down position is where you position the vehicle so that only the commander and gunners optics can be seen from the location that you are observing.


Due to the driver needing to be buttoned up (turned in) and having limited situational-awareness or vision while operating in armoured vehicles, the commander must give direct and specific orders to the driver.

The Driver will be identified using the ALERT of DRIVER. The Commander will then issue the driver with linear commands such as “FORWARD”, “FORWARD-FAST” “FORWARD-SLOW”, “HALT” or “REVERSE”.

The Commander will also issue direction orders such as “LEFT” or “RIGHT” to change the drivers orientation, and “OK” when they have reached the appropriate direction. The commander can also issue the driver with a bearing to turn to.


The Commander has full authority and responsibility for the engagement of the vehicles weapon systems. The Commander also has the responsibility to conserve the relatively small amount of ammunition that is stored on the vehicles and is the authority that prioritises targets and orders the employment of gunnery. It is also the Commanders prerogative to issue the gunner with free-fire orders to engage targets at-will.


The tank requires the most amount of discipline from and accuracy from the gunner as there are a very limited number of shells in a tank, and the tank is vulnerable during the long reloading process.

The Commander will use the following commands to control the gunnery of the vehicle:

The Commander will order the gunner to acquire a specific target by issuing the following command:

GUNNER TARGET munitions – target description – location

e.g. “GUNNER – SABOT/HEAT/COAX – TARGET – TANK/APC/INFANTRY – BEARING one-three-eight, range 600″

The gunner will respond with “IDENTIFIED”, or “CANNOT IDENTIFY”

If the gunner cannot identify the target, the Commander will order the gunner to “TRAVERSE LEFT/RIGHT” and/or “ELEVATE/DEPRESS”.

The gunner will report that they have the correct round loaded and the target layed in by reporting “UP”.

The Commander will issue “FIRE”.

The gunner will state “FIRING-NOW” and engage the target.

The gunner or Commander can observe the fall-of-shot and report “OVER”, “SHORT”, or “LOST” if they didn’t observe where the shell landed. This is common for SABOT rounds as they don’t explode on impact.

If the gunner hits the target, the gunner or Commander will report with the word “TARGET”.

If a follow-up round is required, the Commander will report “TARGET – REPEAT”.

Once the Commander is happy that the target is neutralised, the Commander will report “GUNNER – TARGET DESTROYED”, or in the case of a engagement, can report “GUNNER CEASE FIRE” and issue new orders.



The LAV is slightly different to the Tank as it has a large pool of ammunition for the main armament.

The allows the Commander to issue more general orders to the gunner and allow the gunner to adjust their own fire.

The same fire control orders apply from the Tank section above, with the difference that the Commander orders a fire-rate, e.g. “SINGLE-ROUND”, “DELIBERATE” or “RAPID” for the three fire-rates available to the LAV. The commander will also issue a number of rounds to the gunner. E.g. “GUNNER – SABOT TARGET – APC – 6 ROUNDS DELIBERATE – FIRE”

When the gunner is engaging with the Coax machine gun, the gunner should aim to use bursts of between 10 and 15 rounds, which is easily judged by observing between 4 and 5 tracer rounds during a burst. The Commander will order the employment of the Coax machine gun with a total number of rounds and a fire rate, the gunner will then engage as ordered. E.g. “GUNNER – COAX – TARGET – INFANTRY – 30 ROUNDS – RAPID – FIRE”

Continue Reading

Vehicle Formations


All of the formations have their own strengths and weaknesses and are chosen depending on the terrain and enemy threat. The spacing of all formations should be between 50 and 100m as a general rule.


Wedge will be the normal formation when moving over open ground. The wedge formation has the two most senior vehicle commanders, V11 and V13 at the lead of the charge, with the other two vehicles between 50-100m to the flank and rear.


The Column formation will be used in close terrain, or during administrative moves where the is little enemy threat. It is similar to the infantry staggered formation, except each vehicle maintains clear space to their front so they can maximise frontal firepower. E.g. they drive outside of the track marks of the vehicle to their front.

For this formation, the command team is in the middle of the formation. The lead vehicle is V12, followed by V11, then V13, and lastly V14.


The single-file is used when moving along roads or through narrow choke-points such as mountain passes or over bridges (more on obstacle-crossing drills later).

The order of march for single-file is V12-V11-V13-V14.

The single-file should be avoided if possible.


The line formation is used when you are assaulting a position, or when you have taken contact. The same as the extended-line formation for infantry, with the command team in the middle.

For the sake of an SOP, the formation will be (from left-to-right) V12-V11-V13-V14


Echelon is used when there is an enemy threat to one particular flank, e.g. when you are on the far-left or far-right of a formation and your job is to protect the flanks. The armoured echelon is the same as the echelon formation for infantry, essentially an extended-line but slanted to the left or to the right. The lateral order of vehicles should be the same as the extended line above. E.g if the formation is echelon left, the lead vehicle will be V14, if the formation is echelon right, the lead vehicle will be V12.

Inverted Vee:

The Inverted Vee is used when there is a high-threat of ambush, or when conducting route clearances. The Inverted Vee is the same layout as the wedge, except the flank vehicles are now forward of the command team. These flank vehicles will clear out the sides of the route, and assist to identify hidden threats, e.g. ambushes or command initiated explosives.

Short-Halt – “Herring-bone”:

The Herring-Bone is used when travelling along a road and a short-halt is required.

The Herring-Bone is enacted from the single-file during route-marches to conduct administrative tasks, such as navigation checks, or to conduct quick-orders to the tanks.

The Vehicle Harbor:

The vehicle harbor is used as an all-round protection manoeuvre that is used when stopping for more than roughly five minutes. The harbor is arranged as a circle, with the lead vehicle halting to establish the 12 o’clock position at the desired location, and each other vehicle taking up the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock positions and lastly the rear vehicle occupies the 6 o’clock position. The vehicle harbor orientates the vehicles so that they have their strongest armour facing out.

Continue Reading

Get in touch


Talk to us on